Sectors that are Challenging to Decarbonise

22nd March 2022
Author: Brian Lucas

This report focuses on eight sectors or issues that have been identified as having particular relevance to developing countries: cement, steel, captive coal, shipping, road freight, railway electrification, and electricity generation in centralised grids and in decentralised situations. It briefly describes each sector and identifies technologies that have some potential for use in decarbonising these difficult sectors. It is important to also recognise that decarbonisation is a contentious and highly political challenge, and that institutional and governance issues, which are not the focus of this report, will be critically important in any transition.

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Suggested Citation

Lucas, B. (2020). Challenges for Decarbonisation. K4D Helpdesk Report 786. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.


22nd March 2022


Continent: Global