Secondary Impacts of Major Disease Outbreaks in Low- and Middle Income Countries
Major infectious disease outbreaks in low-and middle-income countries can have serious long-lasting impacts that go beyond the direct impact of the disease, to include secondary social, economic, health and political impacts. These impacts can result from response and control measures such as quarantines, travel restrictions, and social distancing, and can be short or longer term. This rapid review synthesises evidence on the secondary impacts of response and control measures to major disease outbreaks (e.g. SARS/H1N1/MERS/Ebola etc.) in low- and middle-income countries with weak health systems or in pre-existing cries. The available evidence regarding the secondary impacts of response and control measures to major disease outbreaks in low- and middle-income countries finds that they include socio-economic impacts, secondary health impacts, and political and security impacts. A second companion paper (Kelly, 2020) looks at lessons learned from responses to these secondary impacts. These include inter-sectoral responses and co-ordination between NGOs and national governments, the importance of health systems strengthening, and cultural awareness to mitigate against stigma and the marginalisation of specific groups.