Income-generating Activities (IGAs) and Climate Change Vulnerabilities
Climate change has affected a number of income-generating activities (IGAs) for vulnerable groups, such as low-income urban and peri-urban dwellers, women, youth, and disabled people. Therefore, it is important to understand how adaptation and mitigation of the detrimental effects of extreme climatic events can counter the impact of climate change on their livelihoods. Fragile and conflict-affected states (FCAS) include low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) which are vulnerable to ongoing multiple shocks, therefore this rapid review will focus on a small selection of IGAs in FCAS (Afghanistan, Somalia/Somaliland, and Yemen). Lessons learned are also taken from LMIC vulnerable groups affected by climate changes in the Middle East (Lebanon), Latin America (Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico), and Africa (Ethiopia, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda). Most countries have developed agricultural IGAs as a solution to heat stresses and urban food insecurity. Urban dwellers with space for a garden could be guided on how to use it effectively for growing vegetables and fruits. Gender is also an important aspect of urban and peri-urban agriculture as many, and frequently the majority of, urban farmers and producers are women. Urban agriculture is not only offering women new opportunities but new ways of combining work, family, and personal life. Data is available from grey literature and academic outputs. Although climate change and its effect on livelihoods and income are recognised, there is no specific definition available for climate-resilient/adaptive IGAs. The resilient IGAs listed are not particularly linked to climate change, or explicitly stated as climate-resilient. There is also a lack of literature on such IGAs in FCAS. In terms of vulnerable groups, gaps in the literature are specific income-generating opportunities for urban dwellers in Asian areas, as well as for young and disabled FCAS urban dwellers.