Gender and Conflict in Ukraine
The conflicts in eastern and southern Ukraine constitute a significant humanitarian crisis for the country and the region, with at least 1.7 million internally displaced persons, two-thirds of whom are women (UNOCHA 2016, p. 7; UNHCR 2015, p. 5) and approximately 1.5 million people seeking asylum or other forms of legal stay in neighbouring countries (UNHCR 2016, p. 7). Women are at risk of gender-based violence (GBV) perpetrated by armed groups, although GBV does not appear to be systematically or widely used by either side as a weapon of war (OHCHR 2017a; UNOCHA 2016; OSCE 2015). Human trafficking, including trafficking of women for sexual exploitation, is endemic and has been exacerbated by the conflict (OHCHR 2017b). There is some limited evidence that the conflicts may have led to an increase in the prevalence of domestic violence (UNFPA 2015; UNOCHA 2015; OSCE 2015). However, domestic violence remains largely a hidden problem and incidents frequently go unreported (UNFPA 2015). The availability of up-to-date information for this report has been somewhat limited, particularly in relation to non-government-controlled conflict areas. Information about the conflict also carries a significant risk of bias or propaganda; in this report we have relied primarily on information from multilateral organisations such as UN agencies rather than on local sources. The prevalence of gender-based violence is difficult to determine as the issue has traditionally been rather hidden in Ukrainian society.