Who Drives Green Transformations in High Emitting Developing Countries?
This rapid review looks at some examples of countries that are beginning to pursue green growth (or at least in some sectors), highlighting the characteristics and challenges of these movements. The review focuses on how this transformation has been driven,2 focusing on state, private sector and civil society (in some cases). The case studies are not exhaustive and only give a snapshot of the (part) transformations to low-carbon development, this is important to keep in mind given the complexities of these pathways, the importance of context and that these transformations are inherently political as well as economical (and so often subject to the whims of political powers). Furthermore, these cases are not intended to suggest best practices but rather provide insights into how countries are creating commitment devices within their institutional and political contexts. The review firstly explores some of the literature around green growth, transitions theory and the role of institutions, coalitions and actors in energy transformations, with a focus on political economy analysis. The review also touches on developmental state theory and how lessons from this have been connected to green growth. The majority of the literature referred to in this review is academic. The review is largely gender blind, although the transition to low carbon development will need to be gender sensitive and this is acknowledged in the literature.