National and Local Factors in Just Transitions for Low- and Middle-income Countries

25th August 2020
Author: Amanda Lenhardt

Transitions away from fossil fuels and other carbon-intensive industries involve a range of dynamic social, political, economic, and environmental factors at international, national, regional and local levels. Many national governments, state-owned and private enterprises, trade unions, civil society organisations and individuals have committed to carbon emission reduction targets and adopted just transition principles into their strategies to shift away from carbon-intensive energy production and consumption. This report reviews some of the available evidence on the effectiveness of these strategies, summarising global and cross-country analyses and examining transitions in five low- and middle-income countries: Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mozambique, and South Africa.

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Suggested Citation

Lenhardt, A. (2020). National and local factors in just transitions for low- and middle-income countries. K4D Report 872. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.


25th August 2020


Continent: Africa, Asia

Country: Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mozambique