Marine biodiversity and livelihoods. Minimising barriers and enabling benefits
Typical enablers of the benefits of biodiversity are spatial planning, stakeholder participation, access to markets and access to technology. Some enablers can also act as barriers, for example access to technology. Barriers and enablers of marine and coastal livelihoods are often closely related. For example technology may create a barrier or act as an enabler for sustainable livelihoods. This report reviews the barriers which can act as enablers or barriers in relation to realising livelihood outcomes. The themes identified which could serve as both barriers and enablers include: spatial and socio-economic planning, stakeholder participation, environmental governance, tenure and property rights, access to markets, access to technology and fiscal and financial instruments.