Lessons Learned from Market Shaping Interventions to Stimulate Vaccine Production in LMIC
This rapid review synthesises the literature from academic, policy, and knowledge institution sources on the lessons learned on how market shaping tools can be used to stimulate vaccine production in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with a focus on Africa. The purpose is to learn from these interventions in the context of shaping the vaccine markets in Africa to become less dependent on imports and to stimulate local production of vaccines. The rapid review concludes that it is the combination of market shaping tools (supply and demand sides) with efforts to mobilise resources and a clear industrial policy and strategy with long-term political commitment that is needed to develop fully integrated vaccine facilities in LMICs at the national and regional levels. These facilities or “vaccine manufacturing networks” in LMICs, particularly in Africa, need to sell below their production cost for many years after entering the market. This is because they compete within well-established global vaccine markets to which the low-income countries have access through pooled procurement mechanisms. This means that governments in low-income countries have arguably good access to affordable but imported vaccines while needing heavy investment and subsidies to develop competitive vaccine manufacturers. The literature on market-shaping is mainly conceptual without mentioning much empirical evidence. It has a bias on firms and presumes firm strategies to shape markets for their own benefit. The literature often underestimates the role that governments play in shaping markets. As such, this rapid review relies on other sources to investigate the interventions by governments to shape markets and how donors could support these governments in their efforts.